Child Growth | Iraq apta advice
Baby Child Growth

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First trimester do's and don'ts

Child Growth

Do you want to make sure your baby is on track every step of the way? Use this checklist to see which developmental milestone's he or she's made and which you can expect soon. Remember that children develop at different rates & if you have concerns about your child’s development, contact a medical professional.

Baby

4 mo | 9 mo

Toddler

12 mo | 18 mo | 2 yrs

Pre-scooler

3 yrs | 4 yrs | 5 yrs

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most babies do at this age?

• Weight gain slows to about 20 grams per day
• Double the birth weight
• Have almost no head droop while in a sitting position
• Be able to sit straight if propped up
• Raises his/her head 90 degrees when placed on stomach
• Be able to roll from front to back
• Hold and let go of an object
• Play with rattle when it's placed in the hands, but won't be able to pick it up if dropped
• Be able to grasp rattle with both hands
• Be able to place objects in mouth
• Sleeps a total of 14 – 16 hours per day; 9 to 10 hours at night with two naps

Sensory & cognitive development

What most 4 month old babies do at this age?

• Have well-established close vision
• Increase eye contact with parents and others
• Have beginning hand-eye coordination
• Be able to coo
• Be able to laugh out loud
• Anticipate feeding when able to see a bottle (if bottle-fed)
• Begin to show memory
• Demand attention by fussing
• Recognize parent voice or touch

Social

How can you encourage your baby’s cognitive development by playing?

• Place the baby in front of a mirror
• Provide bright-colored toys to hold
• Repeat sounds the infant makes
• Help the infant roll over
• Use an infant swing at the park if the baby has head control
• Play on the stomach (tummy time)

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most 9 month old babies do at this age?

• Gains weight at a slower rate at about 15 grams per day, about 0.45 kilos per month
• Increases in length by 1.5 centimeters per month
• Their bowel and bladder become more regular
• Is able to crawl
• Sits for longer periods
• Reaches for objects while sitting
• Bangs objects together
• Can grasp objects between the tip of the thumb and index finger
• Throws or shakes objects

Sensory & cognitive development

What most 9 month old babies do at this age?

• Babbles
• Has separation anxiety and may cling to parents
• Responds to name
• Understands the meaning of "no"
• Imitates speech sounds
• May be afraid of being left alone
• Plays interactive games, such as peek-a-boo
• Waves bye

Social

How can you encourage your 9 month old baby’s cognitive development by playing?

• Provide picture books
• Provide different stimuli like going to a mall to see people or going to the zoo to see animals
• Build vocabulary by reading and naming people and objects in the environment
• Teach hot and cold through play
• Provide large toys that can be pushed to encourage walking
• Sing songs together
• Avoid television time until age 2
• A toy or any safe object that may help decrease separation anxiety

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most 12 months old children do at this age?

• Be 3 times the birth weight
• Grow to a height of 50% over birth length
• Have one to eight teeth
• Stands by his or herself
• Walk alone or when holding one hand
• Sit down without help
• Bang two blocks together
• Turn through the pages of a book by flipping many pages at a time
• Picks up a small object using the tip of the thumb and index finger
• Sleep 8 - 10 hours a night and take one to two naps

Sensory & cognitive development

What most 12 months old babies do at this age?

• Begins pretend play (such as pretending to drink from a cup)
• Responds to his or her name
• Can say Mama and at least one or two other words
• Understands simple commands
• Tries to imitate animal sounds
• Connects names with objects
• Participates in getting dressed like raising their arms
• Plays simple back and forth games, for example with a ball
• Points to objects with index finger
• Waves bye
• May develop attachment to a toy or object
• Experiences separation anxiety and may cling to parents

Social

How can you encourage your 12 months old baby’s coginitive development, by playing?

• Provide picture books
• Provide different stimuli, such as going to the mall or zoo
• Play ball
• Build vocabulary by reading and naming people and objects in the environment
• Teach hot and cold through play
• Provide large toys that can be pushed to encourage walking
• Sing songs
• Have a play date with a child of a similar age
• Avoid television time until age 2
• A transitional object may help with separation anxiety

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most 18 months old babies do at this age?

• Is growing at a slower rate and has less of an appetite compared to months before
• Is able to control the muscles used to urinate and have bowel movements but may not be ready to use the toilet themself
• Runs stiffly and falls often
• Is able to get onto small chairs without help
• Walks up stairs while holding on with one hand
• Can build a tower of two to four blocks
• Can use a spoon and cup with help to feed himself
• Imitates scribbling
• Can turn two or three pages of a book at a time

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most 18 months old babies do at this age?

• Shows affection
• Has separation anxiety
• Listens to a story or looks at pictures
• Can say 10 or more words when asked
• Kisses parents with lips puckered
• Identifies one or more parts of the body
• Understands and is able to point to and identify common objects
• Often imitates
• Is able to take off some clothing items, such as gloves, hats, and socks
• Begins to feel a sense of ownership, identifying people and objects by saying "my"

Social

How can you encourage your 18 months old baby’s cognitive development, by playing?

• Encourage and provide the necessary space for physical activity
• Provide safe copies of adult tools and equipment for the child to play with
• Allow the child to help around the house and participate in the family's daily responsibilities
• Encourage play that involves building and creativity
• Read to the child
• Encourage play dates with children of the same age
• Avoid television time before age 2
• Play simple games together, such as puzzles and shape sorting
• A transitional object may help separation anxiety

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most 2 years old toddlers do at this age?

• Able to turn a door knob
• Can browse through a book one page at a time
• Can build a tower of 6 to 7 cubes
• Can kick a ball without losing balance
• Can pick up objects while standing, without losing balance
• Can run with better coordination
• May be ready for toilet training
• Should have the first 16 teeth (the actual number of teeth can vary widely)
• At 24 months, they are about half their final adult height

Sensory & cognitive development

What most 2 years old toddlers do at this age?

• Able to put on simple clothes without help & are often better at removing clothes than putting them on
• Able to communicate needs such as thirst, hunger, need to use the restroom
• Can organize phrases of 2 - 3 words
• Understand 2-step command like "give me the ball and then get your shoes"
• An increased attention span
• Vision fully developed
• Vocabulary has increased to about 50 - 300 words (healthy children's vocabulary can vary widely)

Social

How can you encourage your 2 years old toddler’s cognitive development, by playing?

• Allow the child to help around the house and participate in the daily family responsibilities.
• Encourage and provide the necessary space for physical activity.
• Encourage play that involves building and creativity.
• Provide safe copies of adult tools and equipment. Many children like to mimic activities such as cutting the grass or sweeping the floor.
• Read to your child.
• Try to avoid watching television at this age.
• Control both the content and quantity of television viewing. Limit television viewing to fewer than 3 hours per day, and preferably 1 hour or less. Avoid programming with violent content. Redirect the child to reading or play activities.
• Control the type of games played.

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most 3 years old toddlers do at this age?

• Are about half their adult height
• Has improved balance
• Has all 20 primary teeth
• Needs 11 - 13 hours of sleep a day
• Can briefly balance and hop on one foot
• May walk up the stairs with alternating feet , without holding the rail
• Can construct a block tower of more than nine cubes
• Can easily place small objects in a small opening
• Can copy a circle
• Can pedal a tricycle

Sensory & cognitive development

What most 3 years old toddlers do at this age?

• Composes sentences of three words
• Counts three objects
• Uses plurals and pronouns (he/she)
• Frequently asks questions
• Can dress self, only requiring assistance with laces, buttons, and other fasteners
• Feeds self without difficulty
• Has some decrease in separation anxiety for short periods of time
• Fears imaginary things
• Knows own name, age, and gender (boy/girl)
• Starts to share

Social

How can you encourage your 3 years old toddler’s cognitive development, by playing?

• Provide a safe play environment and constant supervision.
• Provide the necessary space for physical activity.
• Help your child participate and learn the rules of sporting activities.
• Monitor both the time and content of television viewing.
• Visit local areas of interest.
• Encourage your child to help with small household chores, such as helping set the table or picking up toys.
• Encourage play with other children to help develop social skills.
• Read together.
• Encourage your child to learn by answering questions.
• Provide activities related to your child's particular interests.
• Encourage your child to use words to express feelings rather than acting out.

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most 4 years old toddlers do at this age?

• Gains weight at the rate of about 6 grams per day
• The average 4 year old weighs 18 kilos and is 40 inches tall
• Sleeps 11 to 13 hours, usually without a nap
• Grows to a height that is double the length at birth
• Hops on one foot without losing balance
• Throws a ball overhand with coordination
• Can cut out a picture using scissors
• May still wet the bed which is normal

Sensory & cognitive development

What most 4 years old toddlers do at this age?

• Has a vocabulary of more than 1,000 words
• Easily puts together sentences of four or five words
• Can use the past tense
• Can count to five and above
• Will ask the most questions of any age
• May use words that aren't fully understood
• May begin using vulgar words
• Learns and sings simple songs
• Tries to be very independent
• May show increased aggressive behavior
• Talks about personal family matters to others
• Commonly has imaginary playmates
• Has an increased understanding of time
• Is able to tell the difference between two objects based on things like size and weight
• Lacks moral concepts of right and wrong
• Rebels if too much is expected of him or her

Social

How can you encourage your 4 years old toddler’s cognitive development, by playing?

• Encourage and provide space for physical activity
• Show the child how to participate in, and follow the rules of sporting activities
• Encourage play and sharing with other children
• Teach children to do small chores, such as setting the table
• Read together
• Limit television watching to 2 hours a day of quality programs
• Expose the child to different stimuli by visiting local areas of interest

Physical features & gross motor skills

What most 5 years old toddlers do at this age?

• Erupting the first permanent teeth (most children do not get their first permanent teeth until age 6)
• Developing increased coordination
• Skipping, jumping, and hopping with good balance
• Maintaining balance while standing on one foot with eyes closed
• Showing increased skill with simple tools and writing utensils
• Can copy a triangle
• Spreads with a knife

Sensory & cognitive development

What most 5 years old toddlers do at this age?

• Vocabulary increasing to over 2,000 words
• Composing sentences of 5 or more words, and with all parts of speech
• Identifying coins
• Counting to 10
• Knows telephone number
• Properly naming the primary colors and possibly many more
• Responding to "why" questions
• Behaving more responsibly and apologizing for mistakes
• Decreasing aggressive behavior
• Outgrowing earlier childhood fears
• Accepting other points of view (but may not understand them)
• Demonstrating increased mathematical skill
• Questioning others, including parents
• Strongly identifying with the parent of the same sex
• Having a group of friends
• Engaging in imaginative play (for example, a trip to the moon)

Social

How can you encourage your 5 years old toddler’s cognitive development, by playing?

• Reading together
• Providing the necessary space for physical activity
• Monitoring both the time and content of television viewing
• Visiting local areas of interest
• Encouraging the child to take responsibility for small household chores, such as helping set the table or picking up toys after playing

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