Pre School Preschool Health

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First trimester do's and don'ts

Preschool Health

  • 01
    Chicken Pox

    Chicken pox, also called varicella, is a common childhood illness and one that may well affect your toddler. It typically appears as an itchy rash of small red bumps that are seen on the scalp, face, or trunk. These quickly change into blisters filled with a clear fluid which then burst leaving dry brown crusts. Waves of these blisters will appear as the chicken pox progresses and the condition will be seen over their entire body. Chicken pox usually lasts five to ten days and may be accompanied by a fever,
    headache or abdominal pain. Your toddler may also be irritable and have a loss of appetite. For a couple of days before the rash appears, they may have a cough or a runny nose.

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  • 02
    Body Temperature and Fever

    It is generally accepted by medical professionals that the normal body temperature for a healthy child is between 97 and 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (36 to 38 degrees Celsius). When a child’s temperature goes above this range, they have a fever. In children under five, the parameters are slightly different and a fever in a youngster of this age is considered to be a temperature over 37.5C (99.5F).

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  • 03

    It can be quite distressing for both you and your child when your child has diarrhoea, as episodes of incontinence can cause both embarrassment and fear for your little one.  Diarrhoea can either be acute, which means that it has a sudden onset and a short duration (less than two weeks) or it can be chronic, which means that it is long-term and persistent. Fortunately, most cases of childhood diarrhoea are of the acute form and usually last only a few days.

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  • 04

    Earwax, also known as cerumen, is a substance secreted by the sebaceous glands in the ears to help keep the ears clean, healthy and free of foreign particles. The function of the wax is to protect the delicate mechanisms of the inner ear from dust, dirt, pollen and other substances by trapping them before they reach this sensitive area. The wax also contains infection-fighting elements that protect the ear against bacterial and fungal infections. Earwax is continuously secreted and the normal process is for it to build up, dry out and then move to the outer ear, where it is washed away or falls out naturally. As it does so, it carries foreign particles with it, out of harm’s way. Sometimes, however, earwax accumulates faster than the body can expel it and this is when it can become a problem.

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  • 05

    Eczema, also called atopic dermatitis, is a skin condition that tends to appear in a child’s first five years of life. It typically shows up as a rash on the forehead, cheeks and scalp, but it can spread to the chest, arms, legs, or other parts of the body. The rash may have the appearance of tiny red bumps that can blister or ooze, or it might look like thick, dry skin that is scaly. Eczema isn’t contagious, but one of its most distressing symptoms is itchiness, which can lead to scratching. The scratching can infect the affected areas of skin by leading to infections.

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  • 06
    Glue ear

    Glue ear (also known as middle ear effusion and chronic secretory otitis media) is a very common condition among children. Although it predominantly afflicts young children, it can develop at any age and can affect one or both ears. Glue ear occurs when the middle ear, which is behind the eardrum and normally filled with air, fills with a sticky, glue-like fluid. This fluid dampens the vibrations made by sound waves as they travel through the eardrum, meaning  that hearing can become impaired. In essence, it can be likened to the affected ear or ears having a volume control which is turned down.

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  • 07

    Influenza, which is more commonly known as the flu, is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract. Caused by a virus, the flu affects all age groups, although children tend to get it more often than adults. Flu outbreaks run in a seasonal pattern, with most cases occurring in the cooler winter months. If your child has the flu, they can feel quite poorly and become irritable. As it is caused by a virus, there is no cure for the flu; all that can be done is relief of the symptoms.

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  • 08

    It can be quite distressing to find out that your child has head lice – the thought of creepy crawlies living in your little one’s hair leading to understandable feelings of revulsion. However, you should take some comfort in the knowledge that head lice are a common childhood complaint – it is estimated that around one in five children have them at any one time.  They pose no real health threat and can be eradicated relatively easily through a number of different methods.

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  • 09

    Mumps is a viral condition that is recognisable by the parotid (salivary) gland enlargement that affects those infected with the disease. The parotid glands are located at the side of the face under the ears and the painful swellings give a person with mumps a distinctive ‘hamster face’ appearance. Mumps used to be one of the most common childhood illnesses, but since the development of the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine, the disease has become much rarer. However, even if your child has been vaccinated against MMR, it’s still possible for them to catch this highly contagious virus because the vaccine isn’t 100 percent effective.

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  • 10

    Nosebleeds are very common in preschoolers, as the inside of the nasal passages are a very vascular area, meaning that they are well supplied with blood vessels. These vessels are tiny and easily ruptured – especially when they become dry or irritated – causing a loss of blood. Although a nosebleed might be a traumatic experience for your child, they are rarely a cause for concern.

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  • 11
    Poison and harmful substances

    Some of the more serious accidents that children become involved in are poisoning incidents. Inquisitive children at 3-4 years of age are unable to discern the difference between what might be an exciting and tasty sweet and a powerful medication in the form of a pill. Similarly, a toxic fluid in a plastic container might appear to be an interesting new fruit juice. For this reason, parents should always make sure that poisonous substances are kept well out of their children’s reach or access.

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  • 12

    Rubella, also known as German measles, is a communicable childhood disease that used to be common in children before the development of the first rubella vaccine in 1969. Now that most children in this part of the world receive the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunisation, it’s now thankfully rare. Recent controversy over the MMR vaccine and its unproven link to autism has led to a decreased uptake of the vaccine in some countries, leading to concern that the incidence of rubella may increase in certain communities.

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  • 13
    Scarlet Fever

    Before the 1920s, scarlet fever was one of the most serious and deadly illnesses and was responsible for the deaths of many children. A vaccine for the disease was developed in 1924 but administering this was negated following the advent of antibiotics, which are now used to treat the condition, making it far less dangerous than it used to be. Scarlet fever is basically a ‘strep’ throat infection (caused by type A streptococcal bacteria) that is accompanied by a rash. The disease gets its name from the reddening of the affected person’s skin when the bacteria in the throat release toxins into the blood. Scarlet fever is a communicable disease, meaning that it is infective. If your child has scarlet fever, they probably caught it from another child, by either breathing in infected droplets that have been coughed into the air, by sharing a drinking vessel or utensil, or by coming into contact with something that the infected child has handled, such as a toy. Scarlet fever can affect adults, but its incidence is less common than in children as the adult immune system is more developed. The statistics show that the median age for developing Scarlet fever is 6 years.

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  • 14

    The sinuses are four sets of hollow spaces filled with moist air that are located in the cheekbones, behind the nasal passages, in the forehead and deep in the brain. They are lined with the same mucous membranes that line the nose and mouth. When sinuses develop an infection that causes them to swell or become irritated, the condition is known as sinusitis. These infections can follow colds or result from a triggering of allergies. Sinusitis is a condition that is fairly common and is one that is easily treated.

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  • 15
    Sun Exposure

    Living in this part of the world means that we are blessed with nearly all-year-round sunshine. Exposure to some sunlight is vital for children’s healthy development, especially in the production of vitamin D, which is necessary for strong bones and healthy teeth. However, too much sun can be very damaging to the skin, causing painful sunburn and leading to a higher risk of skin cancer developing later. This is why it is extremely important to protect your child from the sun.

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If you have a question that needs answering, please get in touch.

If there’s anything you’re unsure about, we’re here to point you in the right direction!